- CSE welcomes MoEFCC’s new notification on brick kilns - It is a welcome step from MoEFCC to reign in uncomplying brick kilns through technology roadmaps or cleaner fuel options, says CSE... The Union Ministry… More...
- To Slow Himalayan Glacier Melt, Curbing Air Pollution is Key - Melting Glaciers, Loss of Snow Pose Risks to South Asia Water Resources... Climate change and air pollution are speeding up the melting of the Himalayan… More...
- Stanford researchers use AI to empower environmental regulators - Monitoring environmental compliance is a particular challenge for governments in poor countries. A new machine-learning approach that uses satellite imagery to pinpoint highly polluting brick… More...
Unique Features That Make HZZK The Solution
HZZK clean brick-firing technology has completely unique core design and operational features that are not replicated in any other kilns or zig-zag versions. Key design features and differences include:
- A long high-performance fire zone – enables close to 100% fuel combustion, minimal emissions and high fuel efficiency. Fuel costs are cut by more than 50%.
- Operates efficiently using alternative fuel sources to coal
- A roof – brings significant economic and workforce benefits
- No tall chimney –eliminates fuel wastage and cuts construction costs.
- Scalable in both continuous or semi-continuous mode. Suits replacement of large-scale commercial kilns (in clusters), medium or village kilns
- Easy implementation of mechanisation & can be automated
- Can operate off-grid – solar etc. Essential with the unreliable power supplies in developing countries.
- Components can be prefabricated to HZZK specifications and delivered ready to assemble for rapid, standardised construction.
LONG FIRE ZONE
A unique heat transference mechanism within a long zig‐zag fire zone allows for the recovery of residual heat from burnt bricks to be moved ahead of the fire zone. This accelerates the pre-drying of ‘green bricks’ before full firing and enables faster fire progression, increases brick production and energy efficiency.
- Enables a greater variety of fuels and clays to be used.
- Allows for optimal combustion and maximum energy extraction from all fuel sources.
INDUCED DRAUGHT & AIR FLOW
The small fan within the kiln creates a unique, induced draught that enables even heat distribution, maximum heat generation and maximum energy extraction from fuel sources.
Using an induced draught/heat transference mechanism – heat from hot burnt bricks is reclaimed and moved ahead of the fire zone. This then accelerates the pre-drying of unburnt green bricks which further reduces fuel consumption and increases the speed of fire travel
Fire is controlled through specific HZZK internal kiln components. This means the fire is swiftly pulled through stationary bricks, set in a zig-zag pattern and the resultant air turbulence enables even heat distribution and maximum heat generation. The kiln operator controls the fire.
- Provides consistent quality bricks with even cure and brick shrinkage.
- Enables less than 2% fired brick waste, or 98% ‘A’ Class yield.
- Due to the excellent control of the fire and the low brick setting height, the HZZK is ideally suited to fire perforated bricks and thin-walled hollow large clay blocks; this conserves topsoil, minimises land degradation and reduces energy requirements for the production of bricks and clay products.
- Rare in other kilns, the HZZK roof transforms working conditions.
- Provides shade and protects workers from unrelenting sun, wind and unseasonal rain particularly with increasingly unreliable climate-impacted weather cycles.
- Enables solar power generation (with battery storage) and the provision of lighting for the safety of all workers, particularly at night.
- Enables water collection, improved hygiene for workers, the provision of toilets, showers in separate male/female facilities (which rarely if ever exist).
- Allows the provision of movable, (solar-powered) suspended ceiling fans over brick setting and their removal when required, to maintain comfortable working conditions.
- Streamlines safe workplace processes and improves the health and safety for all workers.
- Extends production capacity in monsoonal regions and increases fuel savings by eliminating the need to dry out monsoon-soaked kilns prior to production. Brickmaking seasons can commence earlier and extend later – allowing for potential ‘year-round operation’ in monsoonal regions. Note: This would require an increased drying shed capacity.
- Up to 300 tonnes of fuel can be wasted in predominant, standard Fixed Chimney Bulls Trench Kiln (FCBTK). This is through floor and wall heat losses and the need to dry out the kiln which becomes a monsoonal “sponge” in the wet season. Substantial costs are currently incurred drying out kilns each new brick season.
WORKPLACE AND WORKER FRIENDLY
- Comfortable, dry, safe and easier working conditions and work practices.
- The lower brick settings, near ground level with no elevation required, decreases risk of falls and related workforce injuries.
- Clean, non-polluted working environment.
- Workers protected from all the elements by the roof.
- Clean air quality, no billowing smoke or black carbon on site due to almost total fuel combustion.
NO TALL CHIMNEY
- No tall, expensive masonry chimney unlike most South Asian kilns, no billowing plumes of black smoke (black carbon)
- It is unnecessary because of low emissions
- This decreases construction costs and construction time.
- Exhaust gases are minimised through near-complete fuel combustion.
- Minimal emissions are released via a small chimney made of metal or brick.
- The HZZK design uses a short chimney that protrudes just above the roofline to expel steam and minimal emissions – South African results indicate PM 2.5 at 30 ppm and Black Carbon (g/kg) < 0.001
SCALABLE OPERATING MODE
- The smallest construction footprint (size), compared to other kilns with comparable outputs.
- Options exist to operate in both a continuous or semi-continuous mode, allowing for smaller or larger outputs depending on operators requirements i.e. large scale (industrial) or small scale (village/rural setting).
- The design, inclusive of all unique features, is the most suitable kiln replacement technology to minimise black carbon and provide clean air due to its almost complete fuel combustion.
- It has flexibility in the source of power to drive the fan.
- Can operate successfully without access to the electrical grid.
- Diesel and solar can be used as a power source day and night.
- Brick production requirements (output demand) determines the size/footprint of the kiln i.e. an increase or decrease in the number of kiln chambers.
PROGRESSIVE MECHANISATION IS EASILY ACCOMPLISHED
- Kiln design can be adjusted to allow for forklift setting and removal of fired bricks.
- Doors/wickets can also be altered in their size and sealing mechanisation, depending on kiln requirements including to allow for truck access.
- An increase in mechanisation/machine automation systems reduces the handling of bricks and reduces the risk of associated damage.
- Automatic fuel feeders can be incorporated into the kiln design, providing mechanised fuel distribution.