Awareness of the issues surrounding global warming and climate
change are currently at an all time high. Due to the increasing volume of
compelling and indisputable research, combined with the education and
awareness of the general public, businesses and governments around
the world are increasingly acknowledge the impact of climate change on
both the environment and local economies. They are also recognising
that they must actively become involved in seeking the solutions.
CO2 emissions have been acknowledged as a significant contributing factor
to global warming and the focus is now more than ever to actively seek out
solutions to reduce these emissions and their impact on the environment.
Figures indicate the total world emissions of CO2 are 31.3 billion tonnes
per year(1). Australia’s total emissions are 543 million tonnes per year (2)—that
equates to 1.7% of the worlds total emissions.
THE IMPACT OF THE BRICK INDUSTRY ON
The brick industry has long been identified as a major contributor to
these emissions. Worldwide annual hand made clay brick production
is estimated to be over 1,226 billion per annum. The majority of these
bricks are produced in developing countries using inefficient polluting
kilns that have devastating environmental impact resulting in irreparable
harm to the environment and the lives of those working in them.
There are over 300,000* of these kilns worldwide that currently:
Under increasingly strict environmental laws many developing countries have banned polluting kilns particularly the Bull's Trench Kiln and the Clamp Kiln. Despite bans many of these kilns continue to operate undeterred.
- produce over 750 million tonnes of carbon dioxide
emissions into the atmosphere every year;
- burn 315 million tonnes of fossil fuel every year, plus
millions of tonnes of scavenged highly polluting fuel,
e.g. tyres, wood, waste oil, cow dung, paper, liquid tar
(mazoot) battery cases, etc. frequently burnt under cover of darkness;
- create hazardous working conditions for workers,
including young children;
- use inefficient technology, producing sub-standard bricks.
Black Carbon results from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, wood and other biomass. Many of the sources of Black Carbon relate to human activity: transportation, shipping, agricultural burning, diesel engines, residential cooking and heating and brick kilns.
Black Carbon is an important component of airborne particulate matter, it is a deadly air pollutant. Globally, the WHO estimates that outdoor particulate matter is responsible for 865,000 premature deaths each year. Black Carbon is described as even more particularly dangerous, recent studies suggesting that it has an even greater effect on health than general particle emissions.
Studies indicate that there are specific links between particulate emissions and heart attacks, cancer and respiratory illness. Together with ozone in the lower atmosphere Black Carbon has global and regional impacts disturbing tropical rains and the Asian monsoon, affecting the livelihoods of millions. Melting of snow and ice in the Arctic and the snowpack and glaciers of the Himalayas are directly attributed to Black Carbon emissions. Risks of flooding are associated with melting.
Black Carbon contributes to atmospheric brown clouds (ABC's), these eventually become transcontinental plumes, with large impacts on clouds and rainfall patterns and which also contribute to glacial melting.
Black Carbon severely affects both indoor and outdoor air quality in work places, homes, cities and villages. Together with ozone and methane it also contributes to damaging agriculture; emissions severely affect soil quality and crop yields particularly of wheat, rice and soya bean in the developing world.
Black Carbon significantly impacts on the living standards, health and working conditions particularly of the poor in developing countries.
HABLA ZIG-ZAG KILN TECHNOLOGY
The widespread introduction of the Habla Zig-Zag Kiln technology into developing
countries has the potential to impact significantly on climate change
and global warming by reducing CO2 emissions from the brick industry
worldwide by over 375 million tonnes of CO2 per annum.
Introduction of the Habla Zig-Zag Kiln could reduce world emissions by over
From a humanitarian perspective the Habla Zig-Zag Kiln will significantly improve
the work and living conditions of the poor within developing countries. It
also offers all year round production capability and an improved overall
economic outcome for the community.
THE HUMAN ELEMENT
The kiln technologies currently employed in developing countries require anywhere between 20 and 100 workers per kiln. The workforce is often family or village based and also employs child labour.
In some settings this backbreaking, mindless and illegal work is carried out by children as young as eight years old. They work from sunrise to sunset with the best workers carrying up to 1,500 bricks a day at 12 bricks, 2.5 kg per brick (30kgs) a load. By the end of the day they will have moved three tonnes of bricks and will have earned 15 rupees, or about US$0.50.
These dangerous and unsafe working conditions mean that workers labour in the constantly present choking dust from the kiln and belching smoke from the chimneys. They often have to climb steep inclines, both walking on and carrying hot bricks.
The kiln site is home for the majority of the workers, living in makeshift sub-standard accommodation.
Black Carbon, soot envelops working and living areas. Brick industry workers are amongst those 865,000 premature deaths each year from outdoor particulate matter as estimated by the World Health Organization.
It is important that any change to the brick making industry in developing countries does not to remove jobs but rather significantly improves the living and working conditions, along with the overall efficiency of the kilns. This will lead to more affordable housing, reduced poverty, and provide an improved economic outcome for the community as a whole.
Habla Zig-Zag Kiln's is seeking a global partner to implement this technology into
developing countries. The benefits from acquiring the carbon credits
generated will be significant. The credits will offer the opportunity to
become carbon neutral or provide significant financial benefits.
Habla Zig-Zag Kiln technology would ideally suit major global aid agencies, multinational
corporations or organisations with global reach, or coal and fuel
suppliers wishing to become carbon neutral.
There is no other affordable, proven, brick burning technology that will
enable developing countries to reduce pollution and CO2 emissions by
375 million tonnes per annum.
*Figures are based on a very conservative 300,000 brick kilns. We estimate this is more accurately in excess of 500,000. India alone has over 100,000 kilns and the industry is expanding.
(1) Inhabitat – inhabitat.com/global-co2-emissions-down-1-3-percent-in-2009/
(2) The Australian – Greenhouse gas levels increase – Sid Maher – 19 April 2011